Micro Exam 1

Question Answer
Antony van Leeuwenhoek Discovered tiny "animals" in pond water
Robert Hooke found microbes looking at bread mold
Louis Pasteur discovered biogenesis with the swan-necked flask
Spontaneous Generation life comes from nonlife
Biogenesis living things come from other living things
Germ theory of disease disease are caused by microbes
emerging disease disease new to a population
example: zika
re-emerging disease disease we thought had gone away but is back. could be because people stop getting vaccinated
normal microbiota aka normal flora. prevent disease and aid digestion
pathogens disease causing microbes
microorganism vs. microbe alive vs. not alive
3 domains of microorganisms bacteria, archaea, eukarya
3 kinds of microbes viruses, viroids, prions
prokaryotes include… bacteria and archaea
eukaryokes include… only eukarya
4 types of eukaryotes algae, protozoa, fungi, helminths
do not have membrane bound nucleus prokaryotes
have membrane-bound nucleus and organelles eukaryotes
in general the sizes from smallest to biggest in the microbial world… viruses, prokaryotes, eukaryotes
shapes bacteria can be rods, coccus, diplococcus, spiral
how to bacteria multiply? binary fission
what about bacteria cell walls is unique? contains peptidoglycan
how do archaea multiply? binary fission
do archaea have peptidoglycan? nope
prions are made of…? protein
viroids are made of…? rna
viruses are made of…? dna or rna and surrounded by a protein coat
describe how scientific name is written genus is capitalized and species name is not
4 classes of organic polymers carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids (dna rna)
monomer of carbohydrates monosaccharide
monomer of lipids fatty acids
monomer of protein amino acid
monomer of nucleic acid nucleotides
3 types of chemical bonds ionic covalent hydrogen
difference between the bonds? ionic: electron is transferred
covalent: electron is shared
hydrogen: h atom bonds with a highly electronegative atom
hydrophobic/hydrophilic nonpolar molecules repel water/molecules that bond with water
what microscope would we use for bacteria? for viruses? bright field microscope
electron microscope
light microscope magnify up to 1000x
electron microscope magnify up to 100,000x
atomic forcec microscope images of individual atoms on the surface
transmission electron microscope looks… inside the cell
scanning electron microscope looks… surface of the microbe
what color does gram positive stain?
gram negative/
endocytosis/exocytosis things coming into cell/things being pushed out
prokaryotes divide by… binary fission
arobe/anarobe makes atp with oxygen present/can make atp without oxygen
autotrophs/chemotrophs produce their own food from resources around them/get energy from electron donors

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