|Ionic bond||The force of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges.|
|Octet rule||2 or more atoms can interact and produce a chemically stable arrangement of 8 valence electrons for each atom. One atom either fills with donated, empties partially filled, or shares atoms with other electrons.|
|3 main parts of a cell:||1)plasma membrane
|Plasma membrane||Cell's flexible outer surface that separates the cell's internal and external environments|
|Cytoplasm||Consists of all cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Has two compartments, cytosol, and organelles.|
|Nucleus||A large organelle that houses most of the cell's DNA. Within the nucleus, each chromosome contains genes.|
|What is diffusion?||A passive process in which the random mixing of particles in a solution occurs because of the particles' kinetic energy.|
|Passive process:||A substance moves down its concentration or electrical gradient to cross the membrane using only its kinetic energy.|
|Active process:||Cellular energy is used to drive the substance uphill against its concentration electrical gradient.Energy used is usually in the form of ATP.|
|ATP:||Energy currency of living systems. Transfers the energy in catabolic reactions to power cellular activities that require power.|
|Ribose||The sugar in the RNA nucleotide is the pentose ribose.|
|RNA Ribonucleic Acid||Second type of nucleic acid that relays instruction from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids.|
|Nucleotide:||A nucleic acid is a chain of repeating monomers called nucleotides.|
|Nitrogenous base:||DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases, which contain atoms of C,H,O,N.
In DNA the four nitrogenous bases are Adenine(A), thymine(T), cytosine(C), and guarine(G).
|Pentose sugar:||5 carbon sugar called deoxyribose attaches to each base in DNA.|
|Polypeptide:||10-2000 or more amino acid|
|Dipeptide||Two amino acids combined.|
|Tripeptide||Another amino acid added to a dipeptide.|
|Peptide:||Further amino acids result in rhe form of a peptide.|
|Simple diffusion:||Passive movement of a substance down its concentration gradient through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane w/o the help of transport proteins.|
|Facilitated diffusion:||Passive movement of a substance down the concentration gradient through the lipid bilayer by transmembrane proteins that function as channels or carriers.|
|Osmosis:||Passive movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher to lower water concentration until equlibrium is reached.|
|Diffusion:||Movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient due to their kinetic energy until they reach equilibrium.|
|Active transport:||Active process is which a cell expends energy to move a substance across the membrane against its concentration gradient by transmembrane proteins that function as a carrier.|
|Primary active transport:||Active process in which a substance moves across the plasma membrane against its concentration gradient by pumps(carriers) that use energy supplied by hydrolysis of ATP.|
|Secondary active transport:||Coupled active transport of two substances across the membrane using energy supplied by a Na+ (or H+) and another substance in the opposite direction across the membrane; symporters move Na+ (or H+) and other substance in the same direction across the mem|
|Transport vehicles:||Active process in which substance move into or out of cells in vesicles that bud from plasma membrane; requires energy supplied by ATP.|
|Endocytosis:||Movement of substances into a cell in vesicles.|
|Phagocytosis:||Cell eating; movement of a solid particle into a cell after psuedopods engulf it from a phagosome.|
|Exocytosis:||Movement of substances out of a cell in secretory vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid.|
|Transcytosis:||Movement of a substance through a cell as a result of endocytosis on one side and exocytosis on the opposite side.|
|Ribosomes: reddish kidney bean looking thing.||The site of protein synthesis. Produces protein synthesis. Composed of 2 subunits containing ribosomal RNA proteins; may be free in cytosol or attached to rough ER.|
|Endoplasmic reticulum||Is a network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs or tubules. There are 2 forms.|
|Rough ER:||Series of flattened stacks;outside is studded with ribosomes;the site of protein synthesis. Attached to the nuclear envelope.Synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids.|
|Smooth ER:||Extends from the rough ER to form a network of membrane tubules;does not have ribosomes on the outer surface of its membrane.Does not synthesize protein, but it does synthesize fatty acids and steroids like estrogen and testosterone. Inactivates or detoxi|
|Golgi Complex:||Small flattened membranous sacs with bulging ends like a stack of pancakes. Has 3 to 20 cisterns. Modifies,sorts,and packages proteins into vesicles for transport to diff destinations. (Fedex,UPS of cells).|
|Organelle:||Specialized structures with characteristic shapes.Each has a specialized function.|
|Centrosome:||Pair of centrioles plus pericentriolar matrix. Contains tubulins used for growth of the mitotic spindle and microtubule formation.|
|Cilia and flagella:||Motile cell surface projections that contain 20 microtubules and a basal body.
Cilia moves fluids over a cell's surface.
Flagella moves the entire cell.
|Cytosol:||Composed of water,solutes,suspended particles,lipid droplets,and glycogen granules.
Fluid where many of cell's metabolic reactions occur.
|Lysosome||Vesicles formed from Golgi complex;contains digestive enzymes. Fuses with and digests contents of endosomes,phagosomes,and vesicles formed during bulk phase endocytosis and transports final products of digestion into cytosol.|
|Proteasome:||Tiny barrel shaped structure that contains proteases; degrades unneeded,damaged,or faulty pieces into small peptides.|
|Peroxisome:||Vesicles containing oxidases and catalase; oxidizes amino acids and fatty acids;deoxifies harmful substances such as hydrogen peroxide, and free radicals.|
|Mitochondrion:||Consists of an external and internal mitochondrial membrane,cristae,and matrix. Site of aerobic cellular respiration reactions that produce most of a cell's ATP.|
|Codon:||DNA base triplet transcribed in a sequence of 3 nucleotides.|
|Genetic code:||The set of rules that relate the base triplet sequence of DNA to the corresponding codons of RNA and the amino acids they specify.|
|Three types of RNA:||1)mRNA-messenger RNA;directs the synethesis of protein.
2)rRNA-ribosomal RNA;joins with the ribosomal protein to make ribosomes.
3)tRNA-transfer RNA;binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during
|During transcription:||The genetic info in DNA is copied to RNA.|
|Thymine pairs with||Adenine|
|Guanine paies with:||Cytosine|
|Cytosine pairs with:||Guanine|
|During translation:||An mRNA molecule binds to a ribosome. Then the mRNA nucelotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.|
|Cell division:||The process by which cells reproduce themselves. Somatic and reproductive cell division.|
|Somatic cell:||Any cell of the body besides a germ cell.|
|Germ cell:||A gamete (sperm/oocyte),or any precursor cell destined to be a gamete.|
|Somatic cell division:||A cell undergoes cell division that replaces dead or injured cells and adds new ones during tissue growth.|
|Reproductive cell division:||The mechanism that produces gametes to produce next generation of sexually reproducing organisms. Consists of 2 step division called meiosis, in which # of chromosomes is reduced by half.|
|In somatic division:||A cell undergoes a nuclear division called mitosis,and a cytoplasmic division called CYTOKINESIS; to produce 2 genetically identical cells, each with the same # and kind of chromosomes as the original. Replaces dead/injured and adds new ones for growth.|
|Cell cycle consists of 2 major periods:||Interphase:when a cell is not dividing.
Mitotic phase:when a cell is dividing.
|Interphase:||Cell does most its growing.Replicates its DNA and produces additional organelles and cytosolic components.
Consists of 3 phases:G1,S,G2.
|S phase:||"S" stands for synthesis of DNA. Lasts 8hrs; 2 identical cells formed during cell division later in the cell cycle will have the same genetic material.|
|G1 phase:||Cell is metabolically active; replicates most of its organelles and cytosolic components but not its DNA. Replication of centrosome begins in G1 as well.|
|G2 phase:||Interval between the S phase and mitotic phase; laste 4-6 hrs. Cell growth continues and proteins and enzymes are synthesized; replication of centrosome is complete.|
|Mitotic phase:||Results in the formation of 2 identical cells; consists of a nuclear division mitosis and cytokinesis.|
|Mitosis in 4 stages:||1)prophase 2)metaphase 3)anaphase 4)telophase
Pour me a tequila.
|Prophase:||*Chromatins condense, Mitotic spindle forms, nucleolus disappears, and the nuclear envelope breaks down*.|
|Metaphase:||The microtubules of the mitotic spindle allign the centromeres of the chromatid pairs at the exact middle of the mitotic spindle.|
|Anaphase:||Centomeres split, separating the 2 members of each chromatid pair, which moves to opposite sides of the poles of the cell.|
|Telophase:||Final stage of mitosis;telophase begins after chromosomal movement stops. Nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass,nucleoli reappear in the identical nuclei; mitotic spindles break up.|
|Chromatid:||Each prophase chromosome consists of a pair of identical strands called chromatids.|