Chapter

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Ionic bond The force of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges.
Octet rule 2 or more atoms can interact and produce a chemically stable arrangement of 8 valence electrons for each atom. One atom either fills with donated, empties partially filled, or shares atoms with other electrons.
3 main parts of a cell: 1)plasma membrane
2)cytoplasm
3)nucleus
Plasma membrane Cell's flexible outer surface that separates the cell's internal and external environments
Cytoplasm Consists of all cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Has two compartments, cytosol, and organelles.
Nucleus A large organelle that houses most of the cell's DNA. Within the nucleus, each chromosome contains genes.
What is diffusion? A passive process in which the random mixing of particles in a solution occurs because of the particles' kinetic energy.
Passive process: A substance moves down its concentration or electrical gradient to cross the membrane using only its kinetic energy.
Active process: Cellular energy is used to drive the substance uphill against its concentration electrical gradient.Energy used is usually in the form of ATP.
ATP: Energy currency of living systems. Transfers the energy in catabolic reactions to power cellular activities that require power.
Ribose The sugar in the RNA nucleotide is the pentose ribose.
RNA Ribonucleic Acid Second type of nucleic acid that relays instruction from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids.
Nucleotide: A nucleic acid is a chain of repeating monomers called nucleotides.
Nitrogenous base: DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases, which contain atoms of C,H,O,N.
In DNA the four nitrogenous bases are Adenine(A), thymine(T), cytosine(C), and guarine(G).
Pentose sugar: 5 carbon sugar called deoxyribose attaches to each base in DNA.
Polypeptide: 10-2000 or more amino acid
Dipeptide Two amino acids combined.
Tripeptide Another amino acid added to a dipeptide.
Peptide: Further amino acids result in rhe form of a peptide.
Simple diffusion: Passive movement of a substance down its concentration gradient through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane w/o the help of transport proteins.
Facilitated diffusion: Passive movement of a substance down the concentration gradient through the lipid bilayer by transmembrane proteins that function as channels or carriers.
Osmosis: Passive movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher to lower water concentration until equlibrium is reached.
Diffusion: Movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient due to their kinetic energy until they reach equilibrium.
Active transport: Active process is which a cell expends energy to move a substance across the membrane against its concentration gradient by transmembrane proteins that function as a carrier.
Primary active transport: Active process in which a substance moves across the plasma membrane against its concentration gradient by pumps(carriers) that use energy supplied by hydrolysis of ATP.
Secondary active transport: Coupled active transport of two substances across the membrane using energy supplied by a Na+ (or H+) and another substance in the opposite direction across the membrane; symporters move Na+ (or H+) and other substance in the same direction across the mem
Transport vehicles: Active process in which substance move into or out of cells in vesicles that bud from plasma membrane; requires energy supplied by ATP.
Endocytosis: Movement of substances into a cell in vesicles.
Phagocytosis: Cell eating; movement of a solid particle into a cell after psuedopods engulf it from a phagosome.
Exocytosis: Movement of substances out of a cell in secretory vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid.
Transcytosis: Movement of a substance through a cell as a result of endocytosis on one side and exocytosis on the opposite side.
Ribosomes: reddish kidney bean looking thing. The site of protein synthesis. Produces protein synthesis. Composed of 2 subunits containing ribosomal RNA proteins; may be free in cytosol or attached to rough ER.
Endoplasmic reticulum Is a network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs or tubules. There are 2 forms.
Rough ER: Series of flattened stacks;outside is studded with ribosomes;the site of protein synthesis. Attached to the nuclear envelope.Synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids.
Smooth ER: Extends from the rough ER to form a network of membrane tubules;does not have ribosomes on the outer surface of its membrane.Does not synthesize protein, but it does synthesize fatty acids and steroids like estrogen and testosterone. Inactivates or detoxi
Golgi Complex: Small flattened membranous sacs with bulging ends like a stack of pancakes. Has 3 to 20 cisterns. Modifies,sorts,and packages proteins into vesicles for transport to diff destinations. (Fedex,UPS of cells).
Mitochondria: Power house.
Organelle: Specialized structures with characteristic shapes.Each has a specialized function.
Centrosome: Pair of centrioles plus pericentriolar matrix. Contains tubulins used for growth of the mitotic spindle and microtubule formation.
Cilia and flagella: Motile cell surface projections that contain 20 microtubules and a basal body.
Cilia moves fluids over a cell's surface.
Flagella moves the entire cell.
Cytosol: Composed of water,solutes,suspended particles,lipid droplets,and glycogen granules.
Fluid where many of cell's metabolic reactions occur.
Lysosome Vesicles formed from Golgi complex;contains digestive enzymes. Fuses with and digests contents of endosomes,phagosomes,and vesicles formed during bulk phase endocytosis and transports final products of digestion into cytosol.
Proteasome: Tiny barrel shaped structure that contains proteases; degrades unneeded,damaged,or faulty pieces into small peptides.
Peroxisome: Vesicles containing oxidases and catalase; oxidizes amino acids and fatty acids;deoxifies harmful substances such as hydrogen peroxide, and free radicals.
Mitochondrion: Consists of an external and internal mitochondrial membrane,cristae,and matrix. Site of aerobic cellular respiration reactions that produce most of a cell's ATP.
Codon: DNA base triplet transcribed in a sequence of 3 nucleotides.
Genetic code: The set of rules that relate the base triplet sequence of DNA to the corresponding codons of RNA and the amino acids they specify.
Three types of RNA: 1)mRNA-messenger RNA;directs the synethesis of protein.
2)rRNA-ribosomal RNA;joins with the ribosomal protein to make ribosomes.
3)tRNA-transfer RNA;binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during
During transcription: The genetic info in DNA is copied to RNA.
Thymine pairs with Adenine
Guanine paies with: Cytosine
Cytosine pairs with: Guanine
During translation: An mRNA molecule binds to a ribosome. Then the mRNA nucelotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Cell division: The process by which cells reproduce themselves. Somatic and reproductive cell division.
Somatic cell: Any cell of the body besides a germ cell.
Germ cell: A gamete (sperm/oocyte),or any precursor cell destined to be a gamete.
Somatic cell division: A cell undergoes cell division that replaces dead or injured cells and adds new ones during tissue growth.
Reproductive cell division: The mechanism that produces gametes to produce next generation of sexually reproducing organisms. Consists of 2 step division called meiosis, in which # of chromosomes is reduced by half.
In somatic division: A cell undergoes a nuclear division called mitosis,and a cytoplasmic division called CYTOKINESIS; to produce 2 genetically identical cells, each with the same # and kind of chromosomes as the original. Replaces dead/injured and adds new ones for growth.
Cell cycle consists of 2 major periods: Interphase:when a cell is not dividing.
Mitotic phase:when a cell is dividing.
Interphase: Cell does most its growing.Replicates its DNA and produces additional organelles and cytosolic components.
Consists of 3 phases:G1,S,G2.
S phase: "S" stands for synthesis of DNA. Lasts 8hrs; 2 identical cells formed during cell division later in the cell cycle will have the same genetic material.
G1 phase: Cell is metabolically active; replicates most of its organelles and cytosolic components but not its DNA. Replication of centrosome begins in G1 as well.
G2 phase: Interval between the S phase and mitotic phase; laste 4-6 hrs. Cell growth continues and proteins and enzymes are synthesized; replication of centrosome is complete.
Mitotic phase: Results in the formation of 2 identical cells; consists of a nuclear division mitosis and cytokinesis.
Mitosis in 4 stages: 1)prophase 2)metaphase 3)anaphase 4)telophase
Pour me a tequila.
Prophase: *Chromatins condense, Mitotic spindle forms, nucleolus disappears, and the nuclear envelope breaks down*.
Metaphase: The microtubules of the mitotic spindle allign the centromeres of the chromatid pairs at the exact middle of the mitotic spindle.
Anaphase: Centomeres split, separating the 2 members of each chromatid pair, which moves to opposite sides of the poles of the cell.
Telophase: Final stage of mitosis;telophase begins after chromosomal movement stops. Nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass,nucleoli reappear in the identical nuclei; mitotic spindles break up.
Chromatid: Each prophase chromosome consists of a pair of identical strands called chromatids.
Centromere:

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