chapter two

Term Definition
Fertile Crescent A region of rich farmland that curves from the Mediterranean sea to the Persian Gulf centered on the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Mesopotamia the area that ies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in southwest asia
Ziggurat a sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the cheif god or goddes of a particular city-state
City-State a political unit that includes a town or a city and the surroundingland controlled by it
Polytheism the belief in many gods
Dynasty A family of rulers whose right to rule is hereditary
Cuneiform sumerian writing
Sargon king of Akkad in Mesopotamia; he is considered the founder of mesopotamia and conquered many cities along the middle euphrates to northern syria. he established trade routes with the indus vally, the coast of the oman islands, and the shores of the persi
Hammurabi king of babylonia;he was a brilliant millitary leader who brought all of mesopotamia into the babylonian empire. he is known for his uniform code of 282 laws, the earliest known set of written laws
indo-europeans a group of semi-nomadic people who migrated from southern fussia to the indian subcontinent around 1700 bc
steppes arid grasslands
judaism a monotheistic religion originating with the israelites, tracing its origins to abraham, and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the hebrew scripturesand the talmud
torah the first five books of the hebrew bible; the most sarced text of the jewish faith
covenant a binding agreement
patriachs an ancestral father of judaism
diaspora the dispersal of jewsfrom there homeland in Palestine during the 2,600 years that followed the destruction of the Solomon's temple in jerusalem in 586 bc by the chaldeans
monotheism the belief in one god
satraps governors of ancient persia
dualism the belief in thath the world is controlled by two forces, good and evil
Nebuchadnezzar ll Chaldean king of Babylon from 605 to 562 BC; he rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city noted for its famed hanging gardens
moses hebrew leader who led his people out of egypt
cyrus the great persian king who, by 530 BC, ruled the largest empire in the world
zoroaster man whose religious teaching became the basis of zoroastrianism
abraham father of the Hebrew people
diaspora the scattering of the jews outside of canaan
exodus the journey of the hebrew who led his people out of egypt, led by moses
darius l ruler who followed cyrus the great, restoring order to persia
xerxes persian emperor who was the son of darius l
dualism the belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces

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