Chapter1

Question Answer
What are the levels of complexity? 1)chemical level2)cellular level 3)tissue level 4)organ level
5)system level 6)organism level
How many systems are there and what are they? 11 systems. Integumentary,skeletal, muscular,nervous,endocrine,cardiovascular,lymphatic system and immunity,respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
Desribe components of integumentary system, and functions. Skin,hair,nails,sweat and oil glands.
It protects the body, helps regulate body temp,eliminates some wastes, helps make vitamin D, detects sensations like pain, cold or hot.
Describe components of skeletal system and functions. Bones,and joints of the body and their associated cartilages.
Supports and protects the body, provides a surface area for muscle attachments,aids body movements,houses cells that produce blood cells;stores minerals and lipids (fats).
Describe components of muscular system, and functions. Composed of skeletal muscle tissue;named since it is usually attached to bone.
Produces body movements,and stabilizes body position(posture), and generates heat.
Describe components of nervous system,and functions. Composed of brain, spinal cord,nerves,and special sense organs like eyes and ears.
Generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities; detects changes in the body's internal and external environment, interprets the changes, and respo
Describe components of the endocrine system and its functions. Composed of hormone producing glands like: pituitary,thymus,adrenal,testes/ovaries, pancreas, thyoid,and pineal glands.
Functions to regulate body activities by releasing hormones which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland
Describe the cardiovascular system, and its functions. Composed of blood,heart,and blood vessels.
Functions: heart pumps blood through blood vessels;blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells, and helps regulate acid base balance, temp and water content of body f
Describe lymphatic system and functions. Composed of lymphatic fluid and vessels, also includes spleen,thymus,lymph nodes,and tonsils.
Returns fluids and proteins back to blood;carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood;include lymphatic structures that protect against disease causing m
Describe respiratory system and functions. Composed of lungs,airway passages(pharynx,larynx,trachea,and bronchial tubes).
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air;helps regulate acid base balance of fluids; cords produce sounds through air flow.
Describe digestive system and its functions. Composed of organs from the GI tract,a long tube that includes the mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small and large intestines,and anus;also accessory organs that assist in digestion such as salivary glands,liver,gallbladder and pancreas.
Achieves chemical
Describe components and function of urinary system. Composed of kidneys,ureters,urinary bladder,and urethra.
Produces,stores,and eliminates urine,eliminate wastes,and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood;helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids;helps regulate production of RBCs;mai
Describe the reproductive system and its functions. Composed of gonads (testes/ovaries)and associated organs(uterine tubes,uterus and vagina, and epididymis,ductus deferens, and penis in males.
Gonads produce gametes(sperm or oocytes),gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction as well as store
What are important life processes in humans? Metabolism,responsiveness,movement, reproduction,differentation, growth and repair.
Describe anabolism: Building up; generally involves an expenditure of energy.
Describe catabolism: Breaking down; generally involves the release in energy.
Head Cephalic
Neck Cervical
Armpit Axillary
Pubis Pubic
Hand Manual
Groin Inguinal
Cheek Buccal
Nose Nasal
Eye Orbital
Forehead Frontal
Wrist Carpal
Forearm Antebrachial
Front of elbow Antecubital
Arm Brachial
Fingers Digital
Palm Palmar
Foot Pedal
Ankle Tarsal
Toes Digital or phalangeal
Top of foot Dorsum
Leg Crural
Thigh Femoral
Anterior surface of knee Patellar
Face Facial
Skull Cranial
Mouth Oral
Ear Otic
Chin Mental
Breastbone Sternal
Breast Mammary
Navel Umbilical
Chest Thoracic
Base of skull Occipital
Shoulder Acromial
Buttock Gluteal
Shoulder blade Scapular
Spinal column Vertebral
Back of elbow Olecranal
Back Dorsal
Loin (lower back) Lumbar
Hollow behind knee Popliteal
Calf Sural
Sole Plantar
Heel Calcaneal
Back of hand Dorsum
Between hips Sacral
Posterior Back view
Anterior Front view
Lateral Away from midline, horizontally
Midline Straight down the middle
Proximal Towards body
Distal Away from body
Bones in order distal from radius and ulna. Carpals,metacarpals,phalanges
Midsagital Down the middle vertically like sheeps brain.
Transverse plain Separates into inferior and superior views
Dorsal cavity consists of: Cranial+vertebral
Ventral cavity consists of: Thoracic+abdominopelvic
Thoracic cavity consists of: Chest cavity,contains pleural and pericardial cavities, and mediastinum
Pleural cavity consists of: Each surrounds a lung;the serous membrane of the pleural cavities is the pleura.
Pericardial cavity consists of: Surrounds the heart;the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium.
Right regions from top to bottom: Right hypochondriac,right lumbar,right inguinal (iliac)
Middle regions from superior to inferior: Epigastric,umbilical,hypogastric (pubic) regions
Left regions from superior to inferior: Left hypochodriac,left lumbar,lefr inguinal (iliac) regions.
All quadrant names: RUQ
RLQ
LUQ
LLQ
ICF: intracellular fluid
ECF:Extracellular fluid ECF types:interstitial fluid,plasma,lymph,synovial fluid,aqueous and vitreous humors.
Appendices: Small intestines(duodenum,jejunum,Ileum)

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