|What are the levels of complexity?||1)chemical level2)cellular level 3)tissue level 4)organ level
5)system level 6)organism level
|How many systems are there and what are they?||11 systems. Integumentary,skeletal, muscular,nervous,endocrine,cardiovascular,lymphatic system and immunity,respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.|
|Desribe components of integumentary system, and functions.||Skin,hair,nails,sweat and oil glands.
It protects the body, helps regulate body temp,eliminates some wastes, helps make vitamin D, detects sensations like pain, cold or hot.
|Describe components of skeletal system and functions.||Bones,and joints of the body and their associated cartilages.
Supports and protects the body, provides a surface area for muscle attachments,aids body movements,houses cells that produce blood cells;stores minerals and lipids (fats).
|Describe components of muscular system, and functions.||Composed of skeletal muscle tissue;named since it is usually attached to bone.
Produces body movements,and stabilizes body position(posture), and generates heat.
|Describe components of nervous system,and functions.||Composed of brain, spinal cord,nerves,and special sense organs like eyes and ears.
Generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities; detects changes in the body's internal and external environment, interprets the changes, and respo
|Describe components of the endocrine system and its functions.||Composed of hormone producing glands like: pituitary,thymus,adrenal,testes/ovaries, pancreas, thyoid,and pineal glands.
Functions to regulate body activities by releasing hormones which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland
|Describe the cardiovascular system, and its functions.||Composed of blood,heart,and blood vessels.
Functions: heart pumps blood through blood vessels;blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells, and helps regulate acid base balance, temp and water content of body f
|Describe lymphatic system and functions.||Composed of lymphatic fluid and vessels, also includes spleen,thymus,lymph nodes,and tonsils.
Returns fluids and proteins back to blood;carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood;include lymphatic structures that protect against disease causing m
|Describe respiratory system and functions.||Composed of lungs,airway passages(pharynx,larynx,trachea,and bronchial tubes).
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air;helps regulate acid base balance of fluids; cords produce sounds through air flow.
|Describe digestive system and its functions.||Composed of organs from the GI tract,a long tube that includes the mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small and large intestines,and anus;also accessory organs that assist in digestion such as salivary glands,liver,gallbladder and pancreas.
|Describe components and function of urinary system.||Composed of kidneys,ureters,urinary bladder,and urethra.
Produces,stores,and eliminates urine,eliminate wastes,and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood;helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids;helps regulate production of RBCs;mai
|Describe the reproductive system and its functions.||Composed of gonads (testes/ovaries)and associated organs(uterine tubes,uterus and vagina, and epididymis,ductus deferens, and penis in males.
Gonads produce gametes(sperm or oocytes),gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction as well as store
|What are important life processes in humans?||Metabolism,responsiveness,movement, reproduction,differentation, growth and repair.|
|Describe anabolism:||Building up; generally involves an expenditure of energy.|
|Describe catabolism:||Breaking down; generally involves the release in energy.|
|Front of elbow||Antecubital|
|Toes||Digital or phalangeal|
|Top of foot||Dorsum|
|Anterior surface of knee||Patellar|
|Base of skull||Occipital|
|Back of elbow||Olecranal|
|Loin (lower back)||Lumbar|
|Hollow behind knee||Popliteal|
|Back of hand||Dorsum|
|Lateral||Away from midline, horizontally|
|Midline||Straight down the middle|
|Distal||Away from body|
|Bones in order distal from radius and ulna.||Carpals,metacarpals,phalanges|
|Midsagital||Down the middle vertically like sheeps brain.|
|Transverse plain||Separates into inferior and superior views|
|Dorsal cavity consists of:||Cranial+vertebral|
|Ventral cavity consists of:||Thoracic+abdominopelvic|
|Thoracic cavity consists of:||Chest cavity,contains pleural and pericardial cavities, and mediastinum|
|Pleural cavity consists of:||Each surrounds a lung;the serous membrane of the pleural cavities is the pleura.|
|Pericardial cavity consists of:||Surrounds the heart;the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium.|
|Right regions from top to bottom:||Right hypochondriac,right lumbar,right inguinal (iliac)|
|Middle regions from superior to inferior:||Epigastric,umbilical,hypogastric (pubic) regions|
|Left regions from superior to inferior:||Left hypochodriac,left lumbar,lefr inguinal (iliac) regions.|
|All quadrant names:||RUQ
|ICF: intracellular fluid|
|ECF:Extracellular fluid||ECF types:interstitial fluid,plasma,lymph,synovial fluid,aqueous and vitreous humors.|