A&P ch1 A&P

Term Definition
Anatomy studies the form and structure of the body
Physiology examines HOW the body functions.

how organs and body systems function

scientific method 1)make an observation
2)Hypothesis
3)conduct experiment
4) determine if hypothesis is supported or rejected by the data
Microscopic Anatomy examines structures that cant be seen with the naked eye
Cytology (micro. anatomy) study of body cells
Histology(micro. anatomy) study of tissues
Gross Anatomy / Macroscopic Anatomy study of structure and relationship of body parts that are visible to the naked eye
Ex; heart, lungs, intestines
systemic Anatomy examines structure of each body system.

Ex; respiratory system, nervous system, etc.

regional Anatomy examines all structures in a particular region.

Ex: armpit; you would examine blood vessels, nerves,skin, connective tissue.

surface Anatomy Focuses in both, superficial anatomic markings AND internal body structures.

Ex: finding pulse location, proper CPR locations

Comparative Anatomy examines anatomic similarities/diff. between different species.
Embryology studies developmental changes from conception to birth
pathologic Anatomy examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease
Radiographic Anatomy examines internal structures thru specific scannings
ex: MRI, x-rays, etc.
cardiovascular physiology examine functioning of the heart, blood vessels, blood.
Neurophysiology examines how nerve impulses travel trough out the nervous system.
respiratory physiology studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange
reporductive physiology how regulation of hormones can drive the reproductive cycle
pathophysiology relation b/w the functioning of an organ system and disease/ injury.
Metabolism The sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur within the body
Anabolism "Raising up" small molecules are joined to form larger molecules
Catabolism Molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
Stimuli Changes in the external or internal environment that cause a body reaction
Simple to most complex atom-> molecule (H2O, sugar)-> macromolecule (DNA, some proteins) -> organelles cells-> tissues -> organs-> organ systems-> organism
Anatomic position Stands upright with feet parallel and flat on the floor.
upper limbs are at the sides
palms face towards the front
head is at level
eyes look forward
A Section Implies actual cut/slice to expose internal anatomy
A Plane Imaginary flat surface passing through the body
Coronal plane (frontal plane) Divides the body or organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back)
Anterior Front
Posterior Back
Dorsal Toward the bank
Ventral Toward the belly
Proximal Near the trunk
Distal Farther from the trunk

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