Nutrition 1-3

Question Answer
What are some factors that influence food choice? personal preference, habit, ethnic heritage, social interactions, availability, convenience economy, positive and negative associations, emotions, and values
what is a functional food? any food that provides health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions such as activia
what are the macro nutrients? carbohydrates, fats, proteins
what are the micro nutrients? vitamins, minerals
what is neither a macro or micro nutrient? water
vitamins are _________? organic
minerals are __________? inorganic
what is excess energy store as? glycogen and body fat
technical name for body fat adipose tissues
where can adipose tissue be found? subcutaneous, visceral, ectopic
what does subcutaneous mean? under the skin
what does visceral mean? around the organs
what does ectopic mean? out of place
what kind of adipose tissue is subcutaneous, visceral, and ectopic? white adipose tissue
where is the most brown adipose tissue found? in babies
energy in food is measured by what? kilocalories
what is the bomb calorimeter? used to measure energy in food
what is energy density? the number of calories in a given volume or weight of food
what is an example of a low energy density food? celery
what is an example of a high energy density food? m&ms
what is an example of high nutrient dense food? nuts
what is energy that is used for immediate activity? glucose
what is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrates? 45-65% calorie intake
what is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for fat? 20-35% calorie intake
what is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for protein? 10-35% calorie intake
what percent of body weight is water? 60%
what does DRI stand for? Dietary Reference Intake
what is the purpose of the DRI? set to meet needs of 98% of people
when would you use AI(adequate intake)? when there is not sufficient evidence to set an RDA
what is tolerable upper intake level(UL)? dont get more than this amount from your diet and/or supplements or you risk toxicity
what is the ABCD assessment of individuals? A-anthropometrics
B- biochemical
C- clinical
D- dietary/ demographic/ disease
what is primary deficiency? not consuming enough of a nutrient
what is secondary deficiency? consuming enough, however the body does not absorb it correctly (chromes, celiac)
what are convert (subclinical) symptoms? can be found out through testing
what are some diseases associated with nutritional status? heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, certain types of cancer
what are photo chemicals? natural chemicals found in plants
what is the purpose of dietary guidelines? promote health and prevent chronic diseases
what is the purpose of exchange lists? help achieve calorie control and moderation, can be used for diabetes
what are the food categories of exchange lists? cheese and meat, bacon nuts and olils, starches, fruit, milk, vegtables
what is whole grain? contains all parts of the kernel
what is the difference between whole grain and whole wheat? whole grain contains all parts of the wheat kernel and whole wheat is only wheat
what are some common types of grains? wheat, barley, rye, oats
what does it mean if bread is refined? made from the endosperm only
what does it mean if bread is enriched? you have to add back things that were taken out
what are the vitamins and one mineral that can be used for enrichment? iron, thyamin, riboflavin, nyacin, folate/folic acid
what is fortification? adding something extra that wasn't there originally
how is the ingredient list organized? descending order of predominance by weight
what is required to be listed on the nutrition facts? total food energy, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, protein, vitamins A&C, iron, calcium
what does the phrase partially hydrogenated mean? has trans fat
what does the phrase fully hydrogenated mean? has saturated fat
what are the nutrient claims? low fat- FDA approved
good source of…- 10-19% DV
exvellent source of…- >20% DV
what must health claims have? scientific evidence
a structure function claim does not reference what? a disease
what is the vegetarian classification vegan? do no eat anything with animals
what is the vegetarian classification lacto-vegetarian? consumes dairy products
what is the vegetarian classification lacto-ovo-vegetarian? consumes dairy and eggs
what is the vegetarian classification pollo vegetarian? consumes poultry
what is the vegetarian classification pesco vegetarian? consumes fish
what are some health benefits of being vegetarian? weight control, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, lower risk of kidney stones
what are 2 sources of complete plant proteins? quinoa and soy
what are complementary proteins? when one food lacks some amnio acids and so does the other, you put them together and then have all the protein needed
what does a vegetarian diet lack? protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids
what is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids? chia seed, flax seed, canola, walnuts
what is the definition of digestion? process of breaking food down into absorbable nutrients
what is the lining of the gastrointestinal tract called? lumen
what organs are considered accessory organs? salivary glands, liver/gall bladder, pancreas
what are the functions of the digestive system? ingestion, transport, secretion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
where does digestion begin? mouth
what two things are secreted to help digestion in the mouth? salivary amylase and lingual lipase
how much saliva is produced in one day? 1-1.5 liters
what is the muscle at the end of the esophagus called? Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES)
what are the 6 functions of the stomach? food processor, reservoir, propulsive force, source of acid/ enzymes, produces ghrelin, and source of intrinsic factor
explain the process of digestion in the stomach food in the stomach stimulates a release of gastrin, the gastrin tellls the stomach to make hydrochloric acid, also causes the release of pepsinogen. the HCL turns the pepsinogen into pepsin which can break down protein
What does the stomach produce to protect itself from the HCL mucus
how long does it take until your stomach empties out food? about 4 hours
what part of the intestine is the jejunum? the middle portion
what part of the intestine is the ileum? the last portion
what part of the intestine is the duodenum? the first portion
what does CCK do? releases bile from the gallbladder
what does the lining of the small intestine include? enzymes to digest carbohydrates and protein
how many places in the body contain/provide enzymes to digest food? 4
what is the role of bile? comes from the gallbladder to emulsify fat, it breaks fat into small droplets and allows the fat to mix with the digestive enzymes
what percent of bile is reabsorbed? 90%
what are the 2 transport systems in a villus? lymphatic vessel and capillaries/ blood vessels
what length chain is absorbed into the blood stream? short and medium chain fatty acids
what is the structure of the small intestine? folds, villi, microvilli
what are the secretory organs? mouth, pancreas, gallbladder, liver
where can you find sources of enzymes to digest food? mouth, stomach, lining of small intestine, pancreas
what happens in the colon? water is absorbed, 4-5 feet long, fermentation
what is the colon filled with? bacteria
what 3 major things take place within the colon? fermentation, absorption, and elimination
what is a probiotic? bacteria found in foods and beverages that alter the microflora of the host and produce
what is a prebiotic? substances used as food by intestinal bacteria, simulating the growth of more bacteria
what is a symbiotic? combination of a probiotic and prebiotic
what are some common digestive problems? lactose intolerant, diarrhea, celiac disease, constipation, diverticulitis/ diverticulosis

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