Public Policy Dr. Lind POL 231

Question Answer
Public Administration Political Definition Whatever government does. implementing public interest
Public Administration Legal Definition Bound by instruments of law. Law in action in the form of statuutes, regulations, ordinances, codes etc.
Public Administration Managerial Definition Executive function of government. public administrators translate public policies into action
Frederick C Mosher – Democracy and the Public Service (1968). Chapter "The Evolution of American Civil Service Concepts" divides the pre-modern era into five eras – tracing the evolution of administrative practice by examining who were the public administrators of each era
Frederick C Mosher – 5 premodern eras 1789-1829 Government by Gentlemen
1829-1883 Government by the Common Man
1883-1906 Government by the Good
1906-1937 Government by the Efficient
1937-1955 Government by the Administrators
Public Administration is continuously redefining and reinventing itself depending on the prevailing political climate and theories from academic disciplines that bear upon it
-political and academic understanding of society also lead to changes in public policy
What is public policy making 1. it is decision on the part of the government
2. it is what govt decides to do or not to do
3. Public Admin is inherently an instrument of policy
4. It is hierarchical in nature.
5. "Street-level bureaucrats" while interpreting policy, may create it
Representative Democracy -the form of govt in the US is a democratic republic
-While the ppl are sovereign, they make policy through their elected rep – this is called rep-democracy, as opposed to direct democracy
Legislative branch (Congress): Makes the law
Executive Branch (president) Administers and enforces the law
Judicial Branch Interprets the law as required
Conceptualization 1 of Executive Power The conservative view maintains that the president, governor, or mayor is an agent of the legislature, and restricted by it
Conceptualization 2 of Executive Power The executive prerogative view holds tat under certain circumstances, the president possesses extraordinary powers to safeguard the nation, and can go above Congress as needed
Conceptualization 3 of Executive Power the stewardship view argues that the president is a trustee of the people and can take any action not forbidden by the Constitution to act on their behalf
Policy Making: 5 circulatory Actions Agenda Setting, decision making, implementation, evaluation, feedback to new agenda
Down's Cycle of how public policy appears and disappears on the political agenda Alarmed Discovery(dramatic event, recognition of the cost of change, decline of public interest (discouragement), post-problem state (not solved – but disregarded), pre-problem stage.
The US is a pluralistic society as follows: Govt is divided into three branches that exert power over and check powers of each other. American society is made up of competitive groups and powers shift from one group to a
Group Theory -Special interests, not govt are the ones who hold power and create social policy.
-Elites Control the process
-Govt is a group that competes with other groups
Lasswell's Rational Model -All options and means are considered
-Decisions are the products of structured evaluations
-major changes can be made on a regular basis
-decisions tend to be made proactively
-decisions should be removed from political pressure
Lindblom's Incremental Model -Only a few options and means are considered
-Decisions are the products of negotiated settlements
-Changes are made gradually over time
-Decisions tend to be made reactively
-Political considerations are important in determining outcomes
Main powers of influence on Public Administration 1. Foreign Interests
2. Pluralistic Govt
3. Citizens
4. Special Interests
5. Environment
Influences of policymaking: Organizational Cultures are about norms, values, symbols, artifacts, and other tangible and intangible things that exert influence upon a group and link it to its environment
External Environment the diversity that constitutes America, local, regional, and national cultures impact the cultures of public organizations and in the way, public administration reflects the overall values of society.
Internal Environment internal culture of an organization is transmitted by socialization. The professional groups within the organization influence the organizational culture. The conscious use of symbols through dramaturgy, rituals, and traditions reinforce org culture
The Executive Office of the President is a term that includes top presidential staff agencies which provide advice in a variety of administrative areas
Executive Departments The president's cabinet includes the executive departments/Cabinet that advise the president
Independent public bodies: Government Corporations and Regulatory Commissions
State and Local Government Machinery These parallel the national model. The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution provides that "the powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
The Constitution does not specifically mention local governments. Hence, their powers are derived from state law. Local government consists of a hierarchy of levels: county, municipal, city, and town governments, and special districts
The elected chief executive of state is its Governor, assisted by agencies and individuals similar to the federal model
Privatization -Selling govt assets
-financing public facilities
-Private provision of services
Pros of privatization the potential payoff in efficiency and productivity
Cons of privatization -not trouble-free and might lead to abuse and misuse of taxpayer money
-use in the military or corrections
-Increasing pressures on the non-profit sector to provide federally mandated public services
-Using faith-based organizations to provide services
Privatization when: Government turns over services to the private and or non profit sector
Load Shedding when the government pulls out of something; doesnt want to do it anymore
Alternative delivery system when the government plays a more limited role in regulation
Goals of privatization 1. Reduce the size of government and save money by delivering services more efficiently
2. Create more choices for citizens
3. improve service effectiveness
This individual argued there was a need for science of administration Woodrow Wilson
When the public administration is said to be the "kings largesse", this is an example of Big-city political machines that dispense benefits, favors, aid and assistance
When some administrators have described public administration as being "Mickey Mouse", we are referring to: the red tape that can exist in public administration
what is one of the ways to avoid the problems created by the Tragedy of the Commons? Private ownership and government regulation
Why is the field of public administration thought to have had an 'identity crisis'? Due in part to the acceptance of new perspectives in the field as constituting the identity of the field. Always redefining and reinventing itself.
Which of the following is not a type of politics Congregational
Which of the following is not a key player in the iron triangle? The office of the president promoting the policy
"Mixed Scanning" decision making uses both the incremental and the rational-comprehensive model of decision making and was developed by Amitai Etzioni
Pork Barreling the use of government funds for projects designed to please voters or legislators and win votes
bounded rationality the idea that in decision making, rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision
Street Level Bureaucrat People who meet citizens at the interface between citizens & government. Street level bureaucrats have to respond to the citizen with only limited amount of info & time they have to develop mechanisms to cope with the problems of doing their job well
Patronage the power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges
Independent Regulatory Commission federal agencies created by an act of Congress that are independent of the executive departments. Though they are considered part of the executive branch, these agencies are meant to impose and enforce regulations free of political influence.
According to Dillon's Rule there is primacy of state law over local law
Characteristics of a government coorporation -Business is essentially commercial
-Agency can generate its own revenue
-The Agency's mission requires greater flexibility than government agencies normally have
Red Tape involves a series of actions or complicated tasks that seem unnecessary but that the government requires for you to get or do something.
How a department gets its name Department is reserved for agencies of the cabinet rank. Outside of department there is little standardization of names throughout agencies. Common titles include agency, administration, commission, corporation, and authority.
Staff Agency serve in support capacity. They aid the chief executive and other administrators by offering advice and other assistance in the management of the organization
Line Agencies perform tasks for which the organization exists. Congress and the President give the line agencies goals to accomplish, and staff agencies help the line agencies accomplish them
What is the executive office of the president? An umbrella agency of separate agency. Serves as the president’s right arm. Was established by congress in 1939
What are the duties of the white house office and the national security council: National Security Council: acts to advice the president on all matters that regard national security.
Office of management and budget
National drug control:
Council of economic advisors: presidents major source of information and advice on economy
What are the origins of the executive departments and how did they develop? Traditional units of federal administration. Each department is headed by a secretary except dep of justice( Attorney general)
How are members of the cabinet chosen? President appoints head of department which gets senate approval
what role does the cabinet play in the President's decision making serve as the president's advisors
Why does government make independent agencies: being assigned a task that does not fit well within the existing departmental structure; protecting the agencies purpose from the influence of partisan pressure; being created by accident
Independent executive agencies This includes most of the independent agencies. Most are organized like cabinet department just without status. Includes organizations like NASA, the EPA, the Peace Corps, and the American Battle Monuments Commission.
Independent Regulatory Commissions are largely beyond the reach of presidential control. Term length of members and staggering of member appointments keep these commissions from falling under control of one party. Congress has given them certain legislative-like and judicial-like powers
How are government corporations structured Gov corps are also within the executive branch and subject to the President’s direction and control. Gov Corps were established by Congress to carry out certain business-like activities. There are now over 50 govt corporations including USPS, Amtrak.
What are iron triangles: Congress, Bureaucracy, interest group. Agencies and departments keep close contact with lobbyists who want to influence their actions. Interest groups and beaurocracies want to keep in contact with congress to make their laws.
How did the civil service develop: group of employees who do administrative work. Use of patronage (act of giving government jobs to supporters and friends) was in use most of the 19 century. Civil service act set merit as the base of hiring most civil service positions.
What are the characteristics of the current civil service? The office of personnel and management: central clearing house in the federal hiring process
Merit System Protection Board: enforces merit princ & federal bureaucracy
Congress sets the pay and other job conditions for everyone (except postal service)
What restrictions are placed on the political activity of members of the civil service Hatch act limits activities. Prohibits engagement in political activities while on duty or in the work place. Forbids them from soliciting in the work place. Using government position to influence election
How is civil servant job security? very strong, almost impossible to fire a civil servant
Bureaucracy is essential to: carrying out plans of government
Who are people within a bureaucracy people who are un-elected and work for the government (with some exceptions)
Why are the jobs of these frontline workers (street level burcrats) so complex? What they learn in school is different from what they have to do at work. They need to take everything they learned and apply it to the particular situation in a quick way a lot of times without a lot of information.
What was so ground breaking 30 years ago about your(Michael Lipinsky) book ‘street level bureaucracy dilemmas of the individual in public service’? drawing everything together and calling it street level bur made it more interesting to people
Why has your (Michael Lipinsky) book remained in print for so long? Ppl who are actually in these jobs find it very interesting to understand what the nature of this work is. It is about how to cope with the job. It is used all over the world to schools. It also made a claim that you could compare the work of dif jobs
What have been the major changes in the social policy area since your (Michael Lipinsky) book was published? Each public service has been different through what has affected it. Welfare, social workers, the nature of the welfare systems has changed from one that was grant related to one in which the expectation is that people will work and contribute to society
Political Agenda consists of issues that people believe require legal action
Agenda setting when public attention focuses on a public problem or issue
Policy Formation when policy makers in the legislatures and the bureaucracy take up an issue
Policy Adoption : when policy makers formally adopt a policy solution
Policy implementation when government agencies begin to make a policy work by establishing procedures, writing guidelines, or issuing grants in aid to other agencies
Policy evaluation deciding if a policy is addressing the issue it originally set out to solve
Revision is an optional step of changing the policy to help it work better
Cost burden that people believe they will bare if a policy is enacted.
Process regulations are rules that govern commercial activates.
Congressional Statute law passed by congress
Presidential action decision made by president mostly influencing organizations
Court decision opinion of the supreme court or other court
Budgetary Choice legislative enactment of taxes and or expenditures
Regulations when an agency adopts a rule
Majoritarian Politics everybody benefits everybody pays
Interest group politics small group benefits small group pays
Client politics small group benefits everybody pays
Entrepreneurship politics everyone benefits, small group pays
Policy entrepreneurs activists who are in or out of govt who pull together a political majority on behalf of uninterested majority.
Size of government is always increasing
“A government big enough to give you everything you want is a government big enough to take from you everything you have” Gerald Ford
Pork Barrel Legislation legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in hopes of winning votes.
Log roller: when a congressman supports another congressman’s policy if he supports his own in return
Public Policy: the action taken by Congress and the President to deal with the nations problems.
Anthony Downs: 5 stage model for attention to an issue 1.Pre-problem phase: nobody but a few scientist or activists are bothered
2.Alarmed discovery and euphoric enthusiasm: in news
3.Realizing the cost of significant progress
4.Gradual decline of intense public interest
5. Post problem stage

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *