Biology chapter 4

Question Answer
What can the nucleolus do is an area where ribosome assempbly begins
What is the nuclear lamina? lining of the inner memebrane of nuclear envelope found in animal cells
protein synthesis that finishes in the cytosol is destined for the… cytosol, mitochondria, chloroplast, peroxisome, and nucleus
protein synthesis that finishess in the ER are destined for the.. ER, golgi apparatus, lysosome, vacuole, plasma membrane, vesicles, and secretion from cell
exchange of material in endomemebrane system can occur by direct membrane contact or transfer of membrane btwn parts of the pathway using vesicles
functions of the smooth ER glycogen metabolism, synthesis of lipids and steroids, chemical modifiation of drugs and pesticides making them more soluble or exrection, and stores Ca ions
functions of rough ER site for protein synthesis and for secretory proteins synthesis
what is glycosylation adding of sugars
how are glycoproteins formed enzymes covalently linked to carbs to proteins as they enter ER
the ER is a site for.. quality control, meaning proteins fold into their tertiary structures and those folded incorrectly are recognized and removed from ER
Major function of rough ER site of phosphlipid synthesis
what are vesicles small membrane bound compartments
What is the golgi appartus a flattened stack of membranes known as cisternae. Its polarized with 3 different regions (name them)
Golgi appartus functions 1. Cis golgi sorts proteins back to the ER and to the other stacks of the golgi 2. Glycosylation 3. enzymes in golgi modifying the sugars that were added to proteins in ER. 4. synthesize pure polysaccarhides
what are lysosomes responsible for
Where does it form from?
macromolecular digestion
Fusion of golgi apparatus/vesicles
what is autophagy? programmed destruction of cell components including entire organelles
what is endocytosis uptake of extracellular material
what is phagocytosis
nutritional phagocytosis?
uptake of large matter
cells engulfing food particles primarily in single celled eukaryotes
phagosomes fuse with primary lysosomes to form.. secondary lyssosomes
defensive phagosytosis is phagocytes that are specialized cells engulfing entire cells, viruses, and other debris
what does a phagosome do it is a plasma membrane surrounding material that fuses to lysosome
what is a vacuole a single membrane bound organelle that is found in plant cells and derived from golgi vesicle fusion
what is a contractile vacuole a vacuole in plant cells that pumps excess water out of cells
Vacuole function to.. Storage of organic compounds, water balance, and lysosome like functions
What 2 organelles convert energy into useful forms the cell can utilize mitochondria and chloroplasts
Mitochonodria has 2 membranes what are they? outer membrane is very porous and inner membrane has extensive folds called cristae
in eukaryotes the breakdown of energy rich molecules begins in the.. cytosol
partially digested molecules enter where? and what happens then? The chemical energy is converted to ATP molecules
What is the chloroplast known for?
major functions…
site of photosynthesis,
chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and converts it into chemical energy
Found in plant cells
The chloroplasts has 2 membranes plus an internal membrane callled… Thylacoids
the granum is a stack of thylakoids which light energy is converted to chemical energy on these membranes
The stroma is an aqueoous matrix around grana; containing ribosomes and DNA; carbs are synthesized here.
Chloroplasts have how many plastids?
what is a chromaplast?
What is a leucoplast?
1 type, there are also many different types of plastids
It is a type that makes and stores red, yellow, and orange pigments.
They store macromolecules starch and oils
Endosymbiont theory what are the evidence for it? Circular DNA, 70S ribosome, makes a few proteins, replicates themselves independently of the cell, and division of organelles is made possible by nuclear fission
What are peroxisomes.. Single membrane diverse structure that utilizes reactivity of oxygen to strip hydrogens from organic molecules and transfer them to oxygen
Glyoxysomes are… special types of perixomes in plants only. They are converted tp carbohydrates for growth
The cytoskeleton has 3 components what are they? They are microfilaments intermediate filaments and microtubules
Intermediate filaments are found in… and have about… animal cells only,
have at least 50 kinds of proteins and 6 classes,
They have no dynamic instability
Have a tough, ropelike characteristic that is more stable and permanent than MF/MT and maintains its rigidity
Microfilaments are made from actin monomers and are polar, they attach to the plus end and detach at the minus end
What is dynamic instability? microfilaments ability to shorten and lengthen quickly, allowing for quick assembly or breakdown
Microfilament functions? determine/ maintain cell shape (tension bearing), generate contraction forces within cell(muscle contraction or whole cell for motility), whole cell motility
Microfilaments involves using a…
In plants?
In muscle cells?
In amoebas?
motor protein, myosin motor proteins associate with microfilaments
Myosin VI cytoplasmic streaming
myosin II for contraction
Myosin I and II for cell motility
What makes up microtubules? Dimers of alpha and beta tubulin
13 chains of dimers form a hollow tube
Are polar
Dimers are added to + end and remove from – end
Microtubules show… dynamic instability
Expresses rapid depolymerization at – end and rapid polymerization growth at + end
Microtubules can form… Rigid internal skeleton with cytoplasm
Microtubules have an important role in intracellular transport, they utilize.. motor proteins called kinesins, kinesin related proteins and dynein
Cilia and flagella are formed in what pattern? 9 + 2 pattern, that is 9 fused doublets forming a cylinder and 1 unfused pair in the center
What does dynein do specifically? It is a motor protein with a head binding to adjacent doublet and drives the sliding of doublets past each other
What does nexin do? They are proteins that crosslink adjacent doublets together, prevents sliding of doublets and cause cilia and flagella bending
What does MTOC stand for
Where found in?
Microtubule organizing centers or nucleate mcirotubules containing basal bodies which are nucleate and microtubules that produce cilia/flagella
animals, protists, lower plants
What other things do MTOCs have
Found where?
Centrosomes which are also cytoplasmic microtubules
In animals and protists
What is each centriole shaped like? They are 9 triplets in a circle and arranged perpendicular to each other in cytoplasm

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *