Finals – 1 Chapters 1, 8, 9, and 10

Term Definition
Mechanical (Manual) Exfoliation the physical process of removing dead skin cells with abrasive products.
Chemical Exfoliation the use of natural substances such as enzymes or AHAs with other ingredients to remove dead skin cells.
Transdermal Penetration when molecules penetrate the epidermis of the skin. Affected by skin thickness, hydration level, oiliness of skin, size of the product's molecules, temperature of the skin, and pore size.
Atopic Dermatitis hereditary inflammation of the skin characterized by dry, sensitive skin. Temperature changes, sweating, low humidity, and hot temperatures or baths can worsen the condition.
Contact Dermatitis allergic reaction from contact with allergens or non-allergic contact with these substances. Characterized by red, itchy, localized eruption. Influenced by prolonged contact with allergen and concentration of allergen.
Seborrheic Dermatitis a form of eczema characterized by redness and scaly, pinkish-yellow patches with an oily appearance. Usually affects scalp, face, chest, creases of arms, legs, and groin.
Psoriasis inheritable disease triggered by environmental factors (if sufferer has genetic predisposition). Characterized by thick, scaly, silver patches surrounded by red area.
Eczema characterized by itchy, red, dry/moist lesions, eruption of small vesicles, and watery discharge. The vesicles dry and form crusts.
Hives allergic reaction that produces eruption of wheals. Triggered by a release of histamine in the body.
Lesion a change in the structure of the skin tissue. Caused by injury, damage, or skin conditions.
Macule a flat discoloration on the skin's surface. A large freckle.
Wheal a solid, raised formation caused by an insect bite or an allergic reaction.
Papule small, inflammatory elevations that do not contain pus.
Pustule second stage of papules. Small, inflamed elevations filled with bacterial fluid and pus.
Vesicle fluid-filled elevation caused by localized accumulation of blood or fluids below epidermis.
Nodule a tumor; forms a solid mass within the skin. Can be soft or hard, fixed or freely moving.
Cyst abnormal membranous sac containing gaseous liquid or semi-solid substance.
Crust the dried remains of an oozing sore. Might contain blood, pus, sebum, epithelial tissue, and bacterial debris.
Excoriation mechanical abrasion of the epidermis which appears bright to dark red because of dried blood. Caused by scratching.
Scale the shedding of skin cells on the uppermost layer of the epidermis.
Scar a cicatrix; a thick scar caused by dermis-level lesion.
Fissure a crack in the skin that may go as deep as the dermis.
Ulcer visible, open lesion(s) on the skin surface that may result in loss of portions of the dermis. Might be accompanied by pus.
Infection a state caused by pathogenic bacteria or a virus entering the body and multiplying to the point of interfering with the body's functions.
Herpes Simplex blister-like clusters typically found on mucous membranes or skin around the mouth, nose, or genital area. Highly contagious when active. Type I is cold sores. Type II is localized eruption.
Herpes Zoster shingles; characterized by pain, tenderness, and burning along the nerve root on one side of the body. Lesions are contagious.
Impetigo a form of staph infection. A contagious bacterial infection that produces yellow, crusted lesions on the face, scalp, or neck.
Tinea ringworm; Contagious fungal disease characterized by red, circular patch(es) of blisters.
Tinea Corporis an itchy pink to red rash found on the trunk, legs, or arms of the body. Caused by fungal infection.
Tinea Versicolor pityriasis versicolor; a non-contagious, tricolor yeast infection. Creates hypopigmented (lack of melanin) areas on the neck, chest, back, and arms.
Warts verruca; keratotic growths on the hands, fingers, feet, and/or genitals caused by HPV.
Candida Albicans red, well-demarcated (solidly outlined) patches with a white film around them. Caused by yeast.
Pink Eye very contagious conjunctivitis characterized by inflammation of the membrane that lines the eyelid.
Asteatosis xerosis; dry, scaly skin caused by underactivity of sebaceous glands. Occurs as tissue ages.
Seborrhea excess secretion of the sebaceous glands. Associated with oily skin types.
Steatoma a wen; a harmless cyst filled with sebum. Considered a tumor of the sebaceous gland.
Furuncle a boil; the painful infection of a single hair follicle and surrounding subcutaneous tissue. Has a hard, pus-filled core.
Carbuncle a group of boils; an acute bacterial infection characterized by the inflammation of several hair follicles and surrounding subcutaneous tissue. Has a tendency to spread, no central core, and drains through several openings.
Rosacea a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by the swelling of capillaries on the face and inflammation on the nose, cheeks, and chin.
Telangiectasia describes dilated capillaries on the surface of the skin. Most commonly found on the outsides of the nostrils on the inner cheek.
Rhinophyma a severe form of rosacea which causes the tissue of the nose to swell or enlarge. Characterized by dark red blotches and occurs more frequently in men than women.
Acne a chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous glands. Caused when hair follicles get clogged with sebum, dead skin cells, and P. acnes bacteria.
hormonal changes and genetics the two main causes of acne
Androgen a male hormone produced in the adrenal glands of all sexes. Stimulates the sebaceous glands.
Retention hyperkeratosis the accumulation of keratinized skin that adheres to the hair follicle. Determines the degree of skin clogging.
Blackhead an open follicle with a black surface plug. Happens when sebum trapped in the hair follicle oxidizes and becomes discolored.
Whitehead a plugged sebaceous gland with a closed opening. Generally soft, lacks inflammation, and is easy to extract.
Milia small white, enclosed cysts that are hard to the touch. Results from aggressive exfoliation, dermabrasion, or healing from damaged skin.
Nodular Cystic Acne severe acne; characterized by inflammatary hard lesions found deeper in the skin at the point where the hair follicle becomes plugged with dead skin cells.
Grade 1 Acne a grade of acne characterized by mild acne and open and/or closed comedones which cover less than half of the face or back.
Grade 2 Acne a grade of acne characterized by open and/or closed comedones, papules, and pustules. Cannot perform effleurage on a client with this grade of acne.
Grade 3 Acne a grade of acne characterized by open and/or closed comedones, papules, pustules, redness and inflammation, acne scars, and occasional cysts. Must be treated by a physician.
Grade 4 Acne a grade of acne characterized by numerous papules, pustules, deep scarring, and cysts on the face, chest, and/or back. Covers more than half of the face. Must be treated by a physician.
Benzoyl Peroxide an acne treatment that dries and exfoliates. Releases oxygen which helps to kill bacteria.
Topical Antibiotics Prescribed medications that dry skin and kills acne-causing bacteria.
Retin-A Tretinoin; a powerful derivative of Vitamin A that dries skin and promotes rapid exfoliation.
Azaleic Acid an acne treatment that promote drying of the skin and cell turnover.
Salicylic Acid a BHA that mildly dries skin and promotes cell turnover by producing a mild keratolytic action.
Glycolic Acid an AHA that breaks bonds which connect cells together, promoting cell turnover and exfoliation.
Accutane Isotretinoin; an acne treatment taken orally. Prescribed to sufferers of Grade 3 and 4 acne. Inhibits the functioning of the sebaceous glands and hampers keratinization.
Bromidosis osmidrosis; foul-smelling perspiration caused by yeast and bacteria that break down sweat on the surface of the skin.
Anhidrosis a lack of perspiration caused by the failure of the sweat glands. Often caused by fever or illness.
Hyperhidrosis Overproduction of perspiration due to excessive heat or general body weakness.
Miliaria Rubra prickly heat or heat rash; a burning, itching rash caused by excessive heat. An inflammatory disorder of the sudoriferous glands.
Benign, Pre-Malignant, and Malignant the three categorizations of skin growths.
Actinic Keratosis irregular-shaped, scaly, red-pink growths that feel rough and occur on sun-exposed areas.
Basal Cell Carcinoma Common malignant lesion that appears translucent, has irregular borders, and has tiny blood vessels running through them. They commonly occur on sun-exposed areas.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma irregular, crusted red papule. The secondary form of actinic keratosis.
Melanoma the most dangerous skin growth. The secondary form of flat or raised pigmented lesions anywhere on the body. Pre-cancerous, will change size and shape.
ABCD Asymmetry, Border, Color, and Diameter; guidelines which determine whether or not a skin growth is irregular.
Dyschromia abnormal pigmentation of the skin.
Albinism oculocutaneous; a group of inherited conditions that result in a failure to produce melanin. Often results in pale skin, white-blond hair, and blue eyes. Sufferers are hypersensitive to light and sun.
Leukoderma a CONGENITAL disorder. Skin lacks pigmentation due to decrease in melanocyte activity. Can cause partial or total loss of skin pigmentation.
Vitiligo an ACQUIRED disorder characterized by irregular white patches of skin.
Nevus a birthmark or a congenital mole. Creates a stain-like, flat, reddish-purple mark on the face or other parts. Caused by a dilation of small blood vessels.
Lentigo freckles; small yellowish or brownish spots on the face, hands, or neck. Multiplies due to sun exposure.
Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation PIH; a result of tissue trauma caused by acne, burns, injury, or skin conditions such as psoriasis or dermatitis. Characterized by flat, darkened, irregularly shaped patches.
Chloasma Melasma; a common disorder among pregnant women. Increased pigmentation results in light-to-dark patches on the face. Occurs when hormone levels drop after pregnancy or when changing birth control methods.
Intrinsic Aging the natural aging process. Main factors are the genetic composition of the skin and the color inherited from the parents.
Extrinsic Aging skin deterioration caused by external factors such as smoking, sun exposure, and alcohol.
Acute describes intense and severe conditions; implies rapid onset.
Allergen substance that causes an allergy.
Allergy sensitivity that develops from contact with a normally harmless substance.
Chronic describes conditions that are frequent and continuous, typically for a period of more than three months.
Contagious disease which is communicable by casual contact.
Dermatitis general inflammatory disorder of the skin.
Dermatitis Venenata contact dermatitis; an allergic reaction to certain cosmetics or chemicals.
Diagnosis identification of disease based on presence of certain characteristics.
Edema swelling of the tissue or skin; excessive accumulation of tissue fluids.
Erythema redness of the skin caused by dilation or congestion of capillaries.
Etiology study of the cause of diseases (pathogenesis), disorders, or conditions.
Hyperkeratosis excessive keratin cell production on the stratum corneum.
Inflammation reaction of tissue to irritation characterized by redness, pain, swelling, and/or increased temperature.
Thomas B. Fitzpatrick the father of modern academic dermatology. Developed a universally accepted system for classifying skin types according to tolerance of and reaction to UV.
Fitzpatrick Phototype Scale A universally accepted system for classifying skin types according to tolerance of and reaction to UV.
Keratosis a build-up of skin cells on the epidermis.
Objective Symptoms symptoms visible to the eye.
Occupational Disorder health condition created or influenced by one's employment environment.
Parasitic Disease a skin condition caused by animal or vegetable parasites.
Pathology the study of diseases and disorders; their causes, processes, development, and consequences.
Prognosis the predicted probable course and outcome of a disease, disorder, or condition.
Pruritis inflammation that causes severe itching, usually on undamaged skin.
Seasonal Disease a condition or disorder influenced by weather or seasonal changes.
Subjective Symptoms symptoms felt by sufferer which are not visible to others.
Systemic Disease a disease that is active internally throughout the body system.
Cardio, Strength Training, and Flexibility three disciplines that make up a well-balanced exercise routine.
Stress a natural response to challenging and/or ambiguous circumstances. Most ailments linked to unrelieved periods of this feeling.
Nutrition the process of converting carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy.
Calories a unit of heat gained from eating and processing foods. Regulates body temperature, builds and rebuilds structures, and assists in moving and thinking.
Carbohydrates major energy source found in whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds. Makes up 45-65% of daily intake.
Proteins the body's building blocks which make up skin, hair, nails, brain tissue, muscle tissue, and connective tissue. Makes up 10-35% of daily intake.
Fats a source of concentrated energy that provides the body with essential fatty acids (EFAs). Makes up 30% of intake.
Essential Fatty Acids found in fats; produces hormones and protects against heart disease, cancer, autoimmune disease, and skin disease.
Water, Vitamins, and Minerals the other essential nutrients besides carbs, proteins, and fats.
Vitamins organic substances necessary for regular growth and activity.
Hygiene applied science that deals with healthful living.
Personal Hygiene personal system of maintaining one's own cleanliness and health.
Public Hygiene sanitary practices with promote and preserve the health of the community.
Chiropodist another term for a podiatrist or a foot doctor.
Ergonomics the study of the relationship between people and their work environment.
Tendonitis the inflammation of the tendons.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome a numbness or weakness in the hands caused by straining, gripping forcefully, pinching, or repetitive movements.

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