Human Sex Test 1

Question Answer
3 attachment styles secure, avoidant, anxious
securely attached easy to get close to others, comfortable depending on people/having them depend on you, don't worry about being abandoned
avoidantly attached uncomfortable being close to others, difficult to depend on others, get nervous when people get too close, partners want to be more intimate than me
anxiously attached others are reluctant to get as close as I'd like, worry that partner doesn't love me/won't stay with me, want to merge w/ someone which could scare them away
classical conditioning stimulus that naturally elicits a certain response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus, neutral stimulus will elicit that response
operant conditioning strength of a behavior modified by consequences of that behavior
naturalistic fallacy "is-ought" fallacy, if something is natural, it's good
appeal to nature isn't sufficient grounds for justification of behavior in humans
example of naturalistic fallacy pursuit of non-consensual sex may be evolved adaptation, men higher in sex drive may be evolved adaptation
social-intuitionist model of moral reasoning (3) emotional response, moral judgment, rationale
more like a lawyer defending a client than a judge or scientist seeking truth
are reason-based moral frameworks possible? yes, but difficult
social-intuitionist model of moral reasoning is influenced by 2 systems intuitive/automatic system – fast, effortless, operates unconsciously, only results enter awareness
reasoning system – slow, effortful, relies solely on consciously accessible info and inputs
emotions evolved systems, have triggers/functions, monitoring systems, subjective/physiological components
main function of emotions create optimal physiological milieu to support particular behavior that is called forth
sexual arousal functions (3) drives reproduction (seeking out/pursuit of partner, readies body for sexual action
has physiological components (genital response, increased heart rate)
has subjective component (conscious awareness of sexual arousal, can be discordant)
automatic process happens unconsciously (feelings of hunger, elicitation of emotions)
controlled process requires effort (overriding emotional impulses in service of higher order goals)
Pubococcygeus muscle (PC) thin muscle forming a hammock between pubic bone to tail bone, supports pelvic organs, controls urine flow, contracts rhythmically during orgasm
kegel benefits in men stop ejaculation on brink, use reverse Kegels to lessen muscular tension to delay orgasms
kegel benefits in women grip/massage penis
kegel benefits in men/women intensifies orgasms, prevents age-related declines in sexual function, prevents/treats urinary incontinence associated w/ aging/childbirth
ways clitoris can be stimulated during sex (3) directly via clitoral glands, from within vagina, from within anus
describe results of study when experts were asked to identify which descriptions of orgasms were written by which gender people wrote descriptions of orgasms, rewritten w/o gender words, presented to group (gynecologists, psychologists, non-professionals), none could accurately guess gender of authors, biggest difference in genders is ability to have multiple orgasms
predictors of more orgasms (5) higher education level, more masturbation, people who rate partner as skilled/attentive, women who fantasize about sex/masturbate/stronger PC muscle, people who have happy relationships
predictor of less orgasms religious/conservative
premature ejaculation male ejaculation in under 1-2 minutes, causes distress, may have evolved purpose
cause of premature ejaculation genetic component, performance anxiety, never learned control
treatment of premature ejaculation learn "point of no return," use start-stop method, kegel exercises to strengthen PC muscle to develop control
premature orgasm in women, much more rare, not well understood/studied, can be distressing
orgasmic disorder/anorgasmia/delayed ejaculation more common in women, partners of people with these may experience distress
causes of orgasmic disorder/anorgasmia/delayed ejaculation conditioned to orgasm to specific stimulus, anxiety/distraction/pressure, never learned own responses, relational boredom
treatment of orgasmic disorder/anorgasmia/delayed ejaculation stay focused, be mindful, integrate novelty/exploration, masturbation, fantasy, toys
female ejaculation expulsion of a significant amount of fluid at orgasm, beyond typical lubrication
3 types of female ejaculation female ejaculation, squirting/gushing, coital incontinence
female ejaculation whitish fluid from female prostate, Skane's gland is homologous to male prostate – swells during arousal, part of g-spot, leads to urethra, not all women have one
squirting/gushing emission from bladder and urethra, not exactly urine but "diluted chemically changed urine" contains some (but less) of same chemicals found in prostatic emissions, clear/odorless unlike urine
coital incontinence urine from bladder and urethra, incontinence triggered by thrusting of partner, abdominal pressure or orgasm
two types of men can have first ejaculatory orgasm with little/no refractory period
can have > 1 non-ejaculatory (or limited ejaculation) orgasms, with full ejaculation ending it
men who can have first ejaculatory orgasm with little/no refractory period could do so from earliest sexual experiences, unaware of difference, subsequent orgasms might be ejaculatory/dry, if a minor refractory period they just push through and continue
men who can have >1 non-ejaculatory orgasms with full ejaculation ending it most learned this later in life, via start-stop and/or flexing PC when on brink
what % of women and men fake orgasms 43% of women
17% of men
why do people fake orgasms? enhance relationship, make partner feel good, hide lack of desire of partner, manipulation to keep partner committed, elevate one's own arousal, avoid feeling abnormal, to end sex (bad/unskilled partner), own insecurity, avoid negative emotions
sexual plasticity/fluidity extent to which sexual behavior is plastic/fluid, shaped by relationships/cultural and social factors
which gender is more plastic? women
which gender is more likely to be bisexual? women
which gender is more likely to have kink/paraphilia that they require for arousal? men
3 components of sexual orientation attraction/arousal, identity, behavior
% of heterosexuals in population 96.6%
% of gay/lesbian in population 1.6%
% of bisexuals in population 0.7$
people with negative views of SSA believe it has social causes
people with positive views of SSA believe it is inborn
evidence that SSA is genetic/biological GLB people are gender-atypical before SSA, infant boys surgically assigned to be girls generally grow up attracted to women, prevalence of GLB similar across cultures despite in/tolerance, twin studies, fraternal birth order, handedness
twin studies concordance in sexual orientation is higher in identical than non-identical, identical twins who are gay tend to report similar degrees of gender-nonconformity during childhood
fraternal birth order more older brothers greater likelihood a man will be gay, with each successive son mom produces more H-Y antibodies in response to H-Y proteins produced by her male fetuses
handedness gay women and men more likely to be left handed which suggests sexual orientation has an early neurodevelopmental basis
evidence that SSA is environmental/social GLBs more likely to have distant dads/overbearing moms, being raised by GLB parents, reparative/conversion therapy
is SSA being environmental/social well supported? no, theories are not well supported
exodus international "ex-gay" ministry, operated 1976-2013, 250 US locations, 150 other countries
reparative therapy aversive conditioning, masturbatory reconditioning
aversive conditioning view nudes/fantasize (same-sex stimuli) followed by shock to hands or genitalia or smell ammonia
masturbatory reconditioining masturbate till near orgasm with same-sex fantasy (UCS) then shift to opposite-sex fantasy (CS)
does reparative therapy work? no, banned by all mainstream health organizations and APA
dangers of reparative therapy increases depression, shame, anxiety, suicide risk
sexual fluidity situation-dependent flexibility of attraction to genders
plasticity flexibility of sexual responsiveness in general
evidence for "mostly heterosexual" as identifiable sexual orientation substantial prevalence (largest minority), being mostly heterosexual was stable across 6 years (length of study)

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