A&P Eaddy A&P

Question Answer
Anatomy Study Of Body Structure
Physiology Sudy Of How The Body Function
Metabolism all the physical & chemical process by which organism is maintained
Catabolism Metabolic breakdown of substances into simpler substance
anabolism Metabolic building of simple of compounds into more complex substances
Homeostasis Staying The Same
negative feedback Control System based on info returning to a source
11 Body Systems [Protection, Support, Movement :Integumentary-Skeletal Muscular}[Communication & Control: Nervous, Endocrine,) [Circulation & immunity : Cardiovascular, Lymphatic,}{ Energy& fluid balance Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary,Reproductive
Chemistry The Science that deals with the composition of matter
Elements substance that make up all matter
Dorsal Cavity Cranial Cavity Spinal Cavity
Ventral Cavity Thoraic, Abdominopelvic Cavity
Atoms Smallest units of elements
Molecule Smallests unit of compounds;2 or more atoms forming colvalently bond
Compound Any substances of 2 or more elements
Mixture Blend of 2 or more substances
4 Elements that makes up 96% of protoplasm Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) Carbon (C) Nitrogen (N)
Acid Chemical substance capable of releasing hydrogen ion
base Chemical substance that can accept (react with ) a hydrogen ion; alkalinity
salt Reaction between acid & base
Electrolytes Compound that forms ion when in solution
3 Main Type Of Organic Compound Carbohydrates,Lipids,ProtiensMonosacc
monosaccharides simple sugars, buildng blocks of carborhydrates
Protein made of amino acids;
Enzymes Are protien essential for metabolism act as a catalyst; speed up reaction; shape is important in its action
Nucleotide Building block of dna & rna; componet of ATP
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)nucleotide; cells high energy compound
Plasma Membrane cell membrane; outer cover of cell Control what enter and leaves cell
Ribosomes small bodies outside nucleus that manufacture of proteins
Chromosomes threadlike structure of heredity that passed from parent to child
cytoplasm fills the cell from nuclear membrane to plasma membrane
cytosol liquid part of cytoplasm; suspension of nutrients electrolytes, enzymes etc
Endoplamic reticulum ER. Membrane network located between the nuclear membrane and plasma membrane
Golgi Apparatus large organelle consist a stack of membrane sacs that further modify sort & package protiens for export from cell
Centrioles Rod shape bodies(usually 2) near the nucleus that help seperate chromosomes during cell division
Mitochondria Large organelle w/ internal folded membrane that convert energy from nutrients to atp
Lysosmes small sacs of digestive system that digest substance within cell;Remove waste
Peroxisome Have enzymes that Destroy harmful substances produce in metabolism
Vessicles small membrane-bound storage that move material in and out cell
Flagellum long whip like extention that moves cell; only in man sperm
Cilia short hairlike projection from cell that moves fluid around the cell
4 ways substance enter and leave cell diffusion, osmosis,filtration, active transport
osmosis through semipermable; lower solute concertration to a higher solute
diffusion higher concertration to lower concertration
filteration from higher pressure to lower pressure "pushing" force usually responsible for higher pressure
Active transport Lower concertration to higher concertration Requires energy & transporters
Hypotonic Less then 0.9 salt or 5% Cells take in water swells nd may burst; red blood cells undergoes hemolysis
hypertonic Higher then 0.9 or 5% dextrose Cell will lose water and shrink undergoes crenaion
Exocytosis cell moves materials out in vessicles
phagocytosis large particles are engulfed by plasma membrane phag/o -eat
pinocytosis cell drinking;engulf droplet of fluids
Nucleotide contains Phosphate, sugar, nitrogen-containing base
Deoxribonucleic acid in the nucleus Dble strand helix form nucleotide form by A T G C; makes up chromosomes heredity units that control all cell activities
Ribonucleic in cytoplasm; manufacture proteins according to code carried in dna; 3 main types mRNA rRna tRna
4 stages in cell division Interphase([Mitosis],Prophase,Metaphase,Anaphase;Telophase]
Cancer Tumor that spreads to other tissue
Serveral risk factors that develope cancer heredity, chemicals,radiation, obesity, physical inactivity, poor nutriention, infectious agents
4 major classification of tissues Epithelial,connective,muscle,nervous
Epithelial tissue Covers surface,lines cavities,and forms glands.(digestive respiratory,nd urinary tracts)
Structures of epithelial tissue Squamous(flat nd irregular)
Columnar(long nd narrow)
What is use to describe epithelial tissue Terms both shape and arrangements ex.single layer of flat, irregular cells is simple squamous
Gland An organ or cell specialize to produce a substance that is sent out to other parts of body
Mucus A clear sticky fluid
2 catergories glands divided into Endocrine nd exocrine
Exocrine gland Produce secretiins carried out of the body usually have ducts or tubes to carry their secretiins ex gland in stomach secreate digestive juices
Goblet cells Single cell exocrine gland that secrete mucus scayter ivee lining of digestive passageways
Endocrine Secrete directly into surrounding tissue include pituitary,thyroid,adrenal gland
Matrix The intercelluar baxkground material
Fibroblast Produce the protien fiver nd other components of matrix;produce collagen
Collagen A flexible white protein
Loose connective tissue Has a soft semi liquid consistency like jelly
Areolar Tissue Refereing to loose connective tissue "Space"; most common tyoe of connective tissue
Adipose tissue Primarily composed of fat cells(adipocytes)with minimal intercellular matrix; under skin act as heat insulator
Connective tissues /loose;dense;cartilage;bone
Loose connective tissue soft consistency like jelly
Dense connective tissue contains many fibers nd strong like a rope
Bone tissue Hardest connective tissue solidified by minerals in the matrix
Chondrocytes Cells that produce cartilage
ionic bond when electrons are transfer from one atom to another
an ion that has a postive charge is cation
molecules do not dissolve yet remain evenly distributed in the suspending material colloids
one which water is the solvent aqueous
will not dissolve and will settle out unless mixture in shaken suspension (hetergeneous mixture)
isotopes that fall apart easily are said to be Radioactive (Radioisotopes)
radioactive elements that can be administered then detected internally to id abnormalities are called tracers
two simple sugars may be linked together and form disaccharide
storage form of glucose found in liver and skeletal muscle cells are Glycogen
are the main form in which energy is stored fats
the study of cells cytology
dark stained region ;job is to assemble ribosomes nucleous
short extention of plasma membrane that absorb materials in the cell Microvilli
layers of membranes that further modify proteins; sort nd prepare proteins for transport to other parts of cell or out of cell Golgi APPARATUS
Natural part of growth nd remodeling before birth in developing embryo apoptosis
chemical that cause cancer carcinogen
all tissues derive from young actively dividing cells stem cells
support nd forms the framework of all parts of body connective tissue
the normal point for any specify body condition is called set point
what glands secrete hormones Endocrine
another term for skin cutaneous membrane
what connects muscles to bone tendons
connect bones to other bones ligaments
cells that produce cartilage chondrocytes
3 forms of cartilage Hyaline (tough translucent;gristle) Fibrocartilage(firm nd rigid;vertabrae of spine) Elastic;top of ear)
cells that forms bones osteoblast
membrane that cover the bone periosteum
membrane covering cartilage perichondrium
lines the walls of body cavity and are folded back onto the surface of internal organs, forming their outter most layer serous membrane
3 serous membrane Pleurae (line thoraic,cover lungs) Serous pericardium(sac that encloses heart) Peritoneum (forms support w/abdomen;Largest serous membrane )
Mucous membrane contain goblet cells, line tubes nd other spaces that open outside of body
Cutaneous Membrane known as "the skin"outer layer of stratified squamous epithhelium nd inner layer of dense irregular connective tissue; Is complex
meninges several membranous layers covering brain & spinal cord
thin layers of areolar tissues that line joint cavities secrete fluid that reduce friction between end of bones synovial membrane
Biopsy Removal of living tissue for purpose of microscopic examination
computed tomography CT use of xrays to produce a cross sectional pic of body parts such as brain
magnetic resonance imaging MRI use of magnetic field and radio waves to show changes in soft tissues
femoral thigh
crural leg
tarsal ankle
TNM Tumor describe both sixe of primary tumor & if invade nearby tissue Node id involvment of regional lymphnode Meatastases if spread to distant bbody regions
cata down Catabolism
ana upward ..anabolism
-tomy cutting incision of Anatomy
physi/o nature, physical Physiology
path/o diease Pathology
dis appart away from dissect
co together covalent bond
heter/o different hetergeneous
aque/o ,hydr/o water Aqueous Dehydration
di twice dble disaccharide
sacchar/o sugar
-ase suffix used naming enzymes
tri- three
micr/o small microscope
cyt/o cell cystology
chrom/o color chromosomes
semi- partial,half semipermeable
epi- on, upon epithelial
papill/o nipple Papillomaa
ultra beyond Ultrasound
blast immature cell Fibroblast
3 forms of cartilage Hyaline,fibrocartilage, elastic
Hyaline Cartilage Tough translucent material popularity called gristle, cover end of long bones (feel at tip of nose nd throat)
Fibrocartilage Firm and rigid Found between the vertebrae of spine
Elastic cartilage Spring back i to shale after its bent (top part of ear)
Osseous Tissue that compose bones, much like cartilage i celluar structure
Skeletal Muscle Works with tendons nd bones to move the body (voluntary muscle) make it contract by conscious thought
Cardiac Muscle Form bulk of heart wall, also know as myocardium *involuntary* Produces heartbeat
Smooth Muscle Visceral muscles, forms walls in hollow organs in ventral body cavitity, contraction cause gooseflesh(goosebumps)
Neuron Basic unit of nervous tissue
Neuroglia Specialize cells that support nd protect the nervous tissue
How are membranes classified Based on tissues they contain
Myelin Fatty material that insulates and protects some nerve fibers
deep fascia the connective tissue membrane that covers and protects skeletal muscles

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