Week 6 Vocabulary Mosley

Term Definition
homogeneity the state of remaining the same throughout
hone to make more acute or intense
jaded made dull, apathetic, or cynical by experience or by surfeit
jargon a confused unintelligible language
modest placing a moderate estimate on one's abilities or worth
peripheral of, relating to, or being the outer part
perjury the voluntary violation of an oath or vow
postmodernism a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture identity, history, or language
quirk a peculiar trait

vocabulary 2

Term Definition
Overview A general review or summary of a subject
Coherence The quality of being logical and constant
Nebulous A concept or idea unclear vague or ill-defined
Literal Representing the exact words of the original text
Composition A work of music literature of art
Scrupulously In a very careful and through way
Idiom A characteristic made of expression in music or art
Essay Attempt of effort
Impetuous Acting or done quickly without thought or care
Generalization General statement or concept obtained by inferences from specific cases
Exposition Description and explanation of an idea or theory
Disheveled A persons hair clothes or appearance
Figurative Language Expression with a meaning that is different
Revision A revised edition of form of something
Exultant Triumphantly happy

vocab #2

Term Definition
disheveled untidy or messy
nebulous vague or unclear
scrupulously sticking to values and principles
exultant marked by great joy
impetuous marked by sudden energy
essay short piece of nonfiction writing
exposition writing that explains
coherence arrangement of ideas in an easily understood way
revision piece of writing that has been changed to improve it
compostiton a unified piece of writing with several combined ideas
figurative language used for descriptive effect
general idea or statement emphasizing the general over the specific
literal language that means exactly what it appears to mean
overview general idea of what is covered
idiom phrase or expression that means something different from what the words actually say

Legislation

Question Answer
Device Any item, equipment, or system used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
What is ADAAA Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act
What is the Assistive Technology Act Created National website on assistive technology, provides funding to the 50 states and six territories, to develop permanent, comprehensive , statewide programs of technology related assistance.
IDEIA ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEFINITION Services that directly assist a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.

Reconstruction

Question Answer
Reconstruction Rebuilding and healing a country after a war.
Andrew Johnson Became president after Lincoln was killed
13 Amendment Abolished slavery
Black Codes Laws made by the South before the Civil War to keep from having African Americans from having rights.
Freedmen's Bureau Formed to help freed slaves. It build hospitals and schools.
Carpetbagger People who came from the North to start businesses in the South.
Scalawags Southerners who supported Reconstruction.
14 Amendment Gave African Americans citizenship and the right to equal protection under the law.
15 Amendment Gave all male citizens the right to vote.{included African Americans}
Jim Crow Laws Laws passed after Reconstruction that enforced segregation.

vacab#2

Term Definition
disheveled untidy; messy
nebulous vague; unclear
scrupulously sticking to values and principles
exulant marked by great joy
impetuous marked by sudden energy;impulsive
essay a short piece of nonfiction writing on a subject
exposition writing that explains
coherence arrangement of ideas in a easily understood way
revision a piece of writing that has been changed to improve it
composition a unidentified piece of writing with several combined ideas
figurative language language used for descriptive effect
overview idea or statement emphasizing the general over the specific
literal means what it says
generalization general idea
idiom phrase or expression that means different from what is said

vocab #2

Term Definition
Disheveled Untidy;messy
Exultant Marked by great joy
Nebulous Vague;unclear
Scrupulously Sticking to values and principles
Impetuous Marked by sudden energy; impulsive
Essay A short piece of nonfiction writing on a subject
Exposition Writing that explains
Revision Piece of writing that has been changed to improve it
Coherence Arrangement of ideas in an easily understood way
Composition A unified piece of writing with several combined ideas
Figurative language Language used for descriptive effect
Literal Language that means exactly what it appears to mean
Overview General idea of what is to be covered
Generalization Idea or statement emphasizing the general over the specific
Idiom Phrase or expression that means something different from what the words actually say

English Vocab 1

Question Answer
Trilogy A group of 3 books, movies, or songs that have a related theme
Trisect to divide into three parts
Triumvirate a group of people, an authority
Quadrant a quarter of a circle

an early machine for measuring heights

any of the four parts an area is divided by

Quartet a band of four instruments or a choir of 4 voices

a set of 4

Quatrain 4 lines of poetry
Decimate to destroy a large part of

to kill one in every ten

Decathlon an athletic contest where you need to take part in 10 events
Bicentennial 2 hundredth anniversary

happens every 2 hundred years

Centenary having to do with a 100 year period

a centennial

Centigrade referring to a thermometer scale of 100 degrees
Monologe a long speech made by one person
Monarch A ruler of a kingdom

an american butterfly

monogram A design made of letters
monopoly exclusive control of the trade in some item or service

complete ownership and control of a specific item

monolith a large block of stone

a large organization that acts as a single unit

unanimous being in complete agreement
unilateral one sided; done by/effecting only 1 person
duplex A dwelling with 2 living units
duplicate to copy exactly
bilateral having 2 sides

made between 2 people/2 groups

bipartisan involving 2 political parties
bisect 2 divide into 2 equal parts

vocabulary #1

Term Definition
overview a general review or summary of subject
coherence the quality of being logical and consistent.
nebulous in the form of a cloud or haze ; hazy
literal taking words in their usual or most basic sense without metaphor or allegory.
composition the natural of something ingredients or constituents,the way in which a whole or mixture is made up
scrupulously in a very careful and through way
idiom a group of words established by using as having a meaning not deducible from those of individual words.
essay a short piece of writing on a particular subject
impetuous acting or done quickly and without thought or care
gerneralization a general statement or concept obtained by influence from specific cases
exposition a comprehensive description and explanation or an idea or theory
disheveled make (a person's hair or clothes)untidy
figurative language that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is different from the literal interpreation
revision the acting of revising
exultant show or feel elation or jubilation, especially as the result of a success

Chapter

Question Answer
Ionic bond The force of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges.
Octet rule 2 or more atoms can interact and produce a chemically stable arrangement of 8 valence electrons for each atom. One atom either fills with donated, empties partially filled, or shares atoms with other electrons.
3 main parts of a cell: 1)plasma membrane
2)cytoplasm
3)nucleus
Plasma membrane Cell's flexible outer surface that separates the cell's internal and external environments
Cytoplasm Consists of all cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Has two compartments, cytosol, and organelles.
Nucleus A large organelle that houses most of the cell's DNA. Within the nucleus, each chromosome contains genes.
What is diffusion? A passive process in which the random mixing of particles in a solution occurs because of the particles' kinetic energy.
Passive process: A substance moves down its concentration or electrical gradient to cross the membrane using only its kinetic energy.
Active process: Cellular energy is used to drive the substance uphill against its concentration electrical gradient.Energy used is usually in the form of ATP.
ATP: Energy currency of living systems. Transfers the energy in catabolic reactions to power cellular activities that require power.
Ribose The sugar in the RNA nucleotide is the pentose ribose.
RNA Ribonucleic Acid Second type of nucleic acid that relays instruction from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids.
Nucleotide: A nucleic acid is a chain of repeating monomers called nucleotides.
Nitrogenous base: DNA contains four different nitrogenous bases, which contain atoms of C,H,O,N.
In DNA the four nitrogenous bases are Adenine(A), thymine(T), cytosine(C), and guarine(G).
Pentose sugar: 5 carbon sugar called deoxyribose attaches to each base in DNA.
Polypeptide: 10-2000 or more amino acid
Dipeptide Two amino acids combined.
Tripeptide Another amino acid added to a dipeptide.
Peptide: Further amino acids result in rhe form of a peptide.
Simple diffusion: Passive movement of a substance down its concentration gradient through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane w/o the help of transport proteins.
Facilitated diffusion: Passive movement of a substance down the concentration gradient through the lipid bilayer by transmembrane proteins that function as channels or carriers.
Osmosis: Passive movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher to lower water concentration until equlibrium is reached.
Diffusion: Movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient due to their kinetic energy until they reach equilibrium.
Active transport: Active process is which a cell expends energy to move a substance across the membrane against its concentration gradient by transmembrane proteins that function as a carrier.
Primary active transport: Active process in which a substance moves across the plasma membrane against its concentration gradient by pumps(carriers) that use energy supplied by hydrolysis of ATP.
Secondary active transport: Coupled active transport of two substances across the membrane using energy supplied by a Na+ (or H+) and another substance in the opposite direction across the membrane; symporters move Na+ (or H+) and other substance in the same direction across the mem
Transport vehicles: Active process in which substance move into or out of cells in vesicles that bud from plasma membrane; requires energy supplied by ATP.
Endocytosis: Movement of substances into a cell in vesicles.
Phagocytosis: Cell eating; movement of a solid particle into a cell after psuedopods engulf it from a phagosome.
Exocytosis: Movement of substances out of a cell in secretory vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid.
Transcytosis: Movement of a substance through a cell as a result of endocytosis on one side and exocytosis on the opposite side.
Ribosomes: reddish kidney bean looking thing. The site of protein synthesis. Produces protein synthesis. Composed of 2 subunits containing ribosomal RNA proteins; may be free in cytosol or attached to rough ER.
Endoplasmic reticulum Is a network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs or tubules. There are 2 forms.
Rough ER: Series of flattened stacks;outside is studded with ribosomes;the site of protein synthesis. Attached to the nuclear envelope.Synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids.
Smooth ER: Extends from the rough ER to form a network of membrane tubules;does not have ribosomes on the outer surface of its membrane.Does not synthesize protein, but it does synthesize fatty acids and steroids like estrogen and testosterone. Inactivates or detoxi
Golgi Complex: Small flattened membranous sacs with bulging ends like a stack of pancakes. Has 3 to 20 cisterns. Modifies,sorts,and packages proteins into vesicles for transport to diff destinations. (Fedex,UPS of cells).
Mitochondria: Power house.
Organelle: Specialized structures with characteristic shapes.Each has a specialized function.
Centrosome: Pair of centrioles plus pericentriolar matrix. Contains tubulins used for growth of the mitotic spindle and microtubule formation.
Cilia and flagella: Motile cell surface projections that contain 20 microtubules and a basal body.
Cilia moves fluids over a cell's surface.
Flagella moves the entire cell.
Cytosol: Composed of water,solutes,suspended particles,lipid droplets,and glycogen granules.
Fluid where many of cell's metabolic reactions occur.
Lysosome Vesicles formed from Golgi complex;contains digestive enzymes. Fuses with and digests contents of endosomes,phagosomes,and vesicles formed during bulk phase endocytosis and transports final products of digestion into cytosol.
Proteasome: Tiny barrel shaped structure that contains proteases; degrades unneeded,damaged,or faulty pieces into small peptides.
Peroxisome: Vesicles containing oxidases and catalase; oxidizes amino acids and fatty acids;deoxifies harmful substances such as hydrogen peroxide, and free radicals.
Mitochondrion: Consists of an external and internal mitochondrial membrane,cristae,and matrix. Site of aerobic cellular respiration reactions that produce most of a cell's ATP.
Codon: DNA base triplet transcribed in a sequence of 3 nucleotides.
Genetic code: The set of rules that relate the base triplet sequence of DNA to the corresponding codons of RNA and the amino acids they specify.
Three types of RNA: 1)mRNA-messenger RNA;directs the synethesis of protein.
2)rRNA-ribosomal RNA;joins with the ribosomal protein to make ribosomes.
3)tRNA-transfer RNA;binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during
During transcription: The genetic info in DNA is copied to RNA.
Thymine pairs with Adenine
Guanine paies with: Cytosine
Cytosine pairs with: Guanine
During translation: An mRNA molecule binds to a ribosome. Then the mRNA nucelotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Cell division: The process by which cells reproduce themselves. Somatic and reproductive cell division.
Somatic cell: Any cell of the body besides a germ cell.
Germ cell: A gamete (sperm/oocyte),or any precursor cell destined to be a gamete.
Somatic cell division: A cell undergoes cell division that replaces dead or injured cells and adds new ones during tissue growth.
Reproductive cell division: The mechanism that produces gametes to produce next generation of sexually reproducing organisms. Consists of 2 step division called meiosis, in which # of chromosomes is reduced by half.
In somatic division: A cell undergoes a nuclear division called mitosis,and a cytoplasmic division called CYTOKINESIS; to produce 2 genetically identical cells, each with the same # and kind of chromosomes as the original. Replaces dead/injured and adds new ones for growth.
Cell cycle consists of 2 major periods: Interphase:when a cell is not dividing.
Mitotic phase:when a cell is dividing.
Interphase: Cell does most its growing.Replicates its DNA and produces additional organelles and cytosolic components.
Consists of 3 phases:G1,S,G2.
S phase: "S" stands for synthesis of DNA. Lasts 8hrs; 2 identical cells formed during cell division later in the cell cycle will have the same genetic material.
G1 phase: Cell is metabolically active; replicates most of its organelles and cytosolic components but not its DNA. Replication of centrosome begins in G1 as well.
G2 phase: Interval between the S phase and mitotic phase; laste 4-6 hrs. Cell growth continues and proteins and enzymes are synthesized; replication of centrosome is complete.
Mitotic phase: Results in the formation of 2 identical cells; consists of a nuclear division mitosis and cytokinesis.
Mitosis in 4 stages: 1)prophase 2)metaphase 3)anaphase 4)telophase
Pour me a tequila.
Prophase: *Chromatins condense, Mitotic spindle forms, nucleolus disappears, and the nuclear envelope breaks down*.
Metaphase: The microtubules of the mitotic spindle allign the centromeres of the chromatid pairs at the exact middle of the mitotic spindle.
Anaphase: Centomeres split, separating the 2 members of each chromatid pair, which moves to opposite sides of the poles of the cell.
Telophase: Final stage of mitosis;telophase begins after chromosomal movement stops. Nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass,nucleoli reappear in the identical nuclei; mitotic spindles break up.
Chromatid: Each prophase chromosome consists of a pair of identical strands called chromatids.
Centromere: